Whether covert of overt, ostracism hurts. Professor Kipling Williams studies  Рthe fact of being ignored and/or excluded by others Рand its psychological effects. His studies indicate that the initial reaction to ostracism is pain, which is similarly felt by all individuals regardless of personality or social/situational factors. Ostracism then instigates actions aimed at recovering thwarted needs of belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence. When Jesus was ostracised on the cross, He prayed for forgiveness for those who had done it, to the one whose acceptance really counted. Invite someone to take a closer look at Christ (who was himself ostracised) and the church.